The Oration Model

A rhetorical genre developed by Marcus Tullius Cicero in first century B.C.E. The Oration Model is a Rhetorical Mode. This model is in the argumentative mode and is used to argue effectively in six parts. This entire mode focuses around the thesis statement.


The introduction of the Oration Model contains three parts, the Exordium, narration, and thesis.

Exordium (Introduction)

The Exordium is the first part of the entire introduction, and the first part of the entire model. The main purpose of the Exordium is to focus the audiences attention on a topic or issue. In the Exordium, the orator should not be arguing yet.

Narration (Narratio)

The narration, or narratio, is the second part of the introduction, and the second part in the model. The narration is where the orator prepares the audience for a thesis and presents their premises. This includes any background information that will be beneficial for the audience to know. This section is great for indirectly establishing ethos since this is the first exposure the audience has to the orators style. Yet again, the orator should not be arguing yet.

Thesis (Patitio)

The thesis, or the partitio, is the third part of the introduction and the third part of the model. The thesis is the argument itself, the logos. The thesis also forecasts the orators supporting arguments.


The body of the Oration Model contains two parts, the confirmation and the refutation.

Confirmation (Confirmatio)

The confirmation, or the confirmatio, is the first part of the body but the fourth part of the model. The confirmation is where the proof of your premises and the evidence for your supporting arguments are held. This the evidence or reasoning for your thesis.

Refutation (Refutatio)

The refutation, or the refutatio, is the second part of the body but the fifth part of the model. The refutation is where the orator disproves or undermines opposing theses. Not all essay will need a refutation.

Conclusion (Peroratio)

The conclusion, or the peroratio, is the last part of the oration model. The conclusion establishes relevance of the thesis. This is where the orator uses pathos to make the audience care about the argument.


Many people mistake this 6 step process as a way to arrange each paragraph. Six steps does not have to mean six paragraphs. Some steps are going to take more than one or two paragraphs to accomplish.


This is where you inspect the topic for your readers and let them know why it is important enough for them to consider


Now you are going to provide some background information on your idea. Share with your audience what the general public would have to say when your topic comes up.


This is a very important step because this is where you state your side of the argument, split your topic into smaller sections and map out for your reader what the rest of the text is going to look like.


This step should typically take longer to go through than the rest. You will now generate points to help support your thesis, then back up these points with examples, reasons, evidence, and lot of details.


Several of your readers are going to have a different opinion on your topic, so your job is anticipate their objections and shut them down once again with more examples, reasons, evidence, and details.


Now you are going to wrap up everything, revisit your thesis, and make sure to leave your audience with the idea that your paper was worth reading.

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License