A claim is a general observation that is drawn to conclusion without any evidence to back it up.

The 4 Types Of Claims

Claims can be broken down into four different categories, claims of fact, claims of cause and effect, claims of policy, and claims of value.

  • A claim of fact is a when your claim is trying to convince your audience that something or a claim about something is true or false.
  • A claim of cause and effect is when you are trying to convince the audience that there is a direct connection between one thing occurring and another thing occurring.
  • A claim of policy is when you make the claim that there is a problem then you try to argue for the solution you have to that problem.
  • A claim of value is any claim in which the author is trying to convey the importance of worth of something to the audience.

4 Different Examples Of Claim

  • Claim of fact- "Pilots are one of the most dangerous jobs in America"
  • Claim of cause and effect- "Frowning is not good for you because it will give you wrinkles in the face"
  • Claim of policy- "The government should enforce the laws better because they're not helping anyone by sitting around"
  • Claim of value- "Having an abortion is morally wrong"


- If a claim is Stated, infer purpose from claim.
- If a claim is implied, infer claim from purpose.

To disprove claims:

  • Reductio ad absurdum
    • Show absurd consequences of unsound claims.
      • If the same set of premises reaches contradictory conclusions the argument is unsound.
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