A logical / effective pattern determined by rhetorical mode of discourse.
Classical (Roman) Oration Model:

Exordium (Introduction)

  • Identify and focus the attention of the audience on the topic/issue being discussed.
  • First couple sentences should be when it is introduced.

Narration (narratio)

  • Provide necessary information about the topic / prepare the audience for the claim.
  • No Evidence/ anything that should prove the claim

Thesis (partitio)

  • The claim

Conformation (confirmatio)

  • Prove the thesis- provide evidence

Refutation (refutatio)

  • Disprove the opponents thesis
  • Show how their argument is unsound (look for fallacies)
  • Provides reasoning and evidence in opposition to the thesis.

Conclusion (peroratio)

  • Establish relevance of the thesis.
  • Use pathos- makes the audience care about what is being said

Effectiveness of the Arrangement

  • Presence or absence of elements

- The six elements of the oration model, exordium, naratio, partitio, confirmatio, refutatio, and peroratio, can be either included or omitted from an argument to make it effective. Determining the effectiveness of the arrangement of a text can be done by examining the presence or absence of elements.

  • Fungibility (or lack thereof)

- The fungibility of an element of the oration model is it's ability to change positions with a similar element without making major changes to the argument. If the sections of the oration model in an argument can be rearranged without any major changes, the argument is ineffective. If the sections are placed strategically in the way that best supports the argument, such that they can't be rearranged without changing it, the argument is one step closer to being effective.
- The next step to determining the effectiveness of an arrangement is to decide whether or not all sections of the text are adequately developed. All elements of the oration model that have been included in the text must be developed to make the arrangement of that text effective.
*Modes of discourse
- The mode of discourse is the general structure of the oration. The 5 modes of discourse are:

  1. Compare and Contrast
  2. Classification
  3. Definition
  4. Narration
  5. Description

The mode of discourse being used will logically impart a particular arrangement on the text.

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